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By Y. Kazuki, T. C. Schulz, T. Shinohara, M. Kadota (auth.), Prof. Dr. G. Lubec (eds.)
"Advances in Down Syndrome examine” represents up to date examine in numerous parts of Down Syndrome (DS). a brand new promising animal version of DS is pronounced and this opens new possibilities to check pathomechanisms and pharmacological techniques because it is greater than tricky to hold out reports in people and the medical positive factors are hugely variable. by way of biology, telephone cycle and stem mobile experiences and by way of biochemistry, relevance of experiences on a selected protein kinase, channels, transporters, superoxide dismutase, antioxidant process, chromosome meeting issue and different very important organic buildings are supplied. And back, the gene dosage speculation is addressed and even though the majority of chromosome 21 gene items is unchanged in fetal DS mind, a couple of particular chromosome 21 encoded buildings together with transcription elements are certainly overexpressed even supposing findings in fetal DS are various from these in grownup DS mind while Alzheimer-like neuropathology supervenes.
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Circ Res 87: E61-68 Yang EJ, Ahn YS, Chung KC (2001) Protein kinase Dyrk1 activates camp response element-binding protein during neuronal differentiation in hippocampal progenitor cells. J BioI Chern 276: 39819-39824 Yoshida NL, Miyashita T, UM, Yamada M, Reed JC, Sugita Y, Oshida T (2002) Analysis of gene expression patterns during glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis using oligonucleotide arrays. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293: 1254-1261 Zhuo M, Zhang W, Son H, Mansuy I, Sobel RA, Seidman J et al (1999) A selective role of calcineurin An in synaptic depotentiation in hippocampus.
Data are from 3-5 replicates Predicting pathway perturbations in Down syndrome 33 i) While the analysis shows that chromosome 21 contains genes predicted to function in a very broad range of cellular processes, only 94 and 71 of these are trisomic in the mouse chromosome 16 segmental trisomies, Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje. In addition, for subsets of genes functioning within a common pathway or process, again not all are trisomic in the mouse models. These points suggest that phenotypic effects of trisomy on these pathways cannot be completely reproduced in current mouse models.
Discussion The availability of the complete sequence of human chromosome 21 and the draft sequence of the homologous mouse chromosomal regions has allowed detailed comparative annotation of gene contents. Of 170 orthologous gene pairs, 140 can be associated with some functional annotation, either from reports of direct experimental analysis, or by computational methods that identify similarities to protein domains and motifs of known function. Several points are noteworthy. (a) W1 W2 T1 T2 W3 W4 T3 T4 W5 T5 - pErkl - pErk2 (b) pEJII1 c:::I control _Ts65Cf1 control (c) pErla =:I COlllroi _Ts65Cf1 control Ts680n Fig.
Advances in Down Syndrome Research by Y. Kazuki, T. C. Schulz, T. Shinohara, M. Kadota (auth.), Prof. Dr. G. Lubec (eds.)