Acid Atmospheric Deposition and its Effects on Terrestrial by G.J. Heij,J.W. Erisman PDF
By G.J. Heij,J.W. Erisman
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Extra info for Acid Atmospheric Deposition and its Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Netherlands. The Third and Final Phase (1991-1995)
Apart from this it should be noted that both the emission estimates and the measurements were arrived at by different I methods and that the picture may be clouded by uncertainties in the measurements and in changes to model parameters (surface resistance, conversion rate) over the years. g/m 3) 10 5 0 77 ; , i ; ! 4 National mean annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, NH 3 and O3between 1979 and 1993. ~_ ---0- de Bilt -II-- Witteveen Leiduin Braakman i 400 i 200 0 80 i t t ! 5 Mean annual concentrations of NH4 + in rainwater and in aerosols, and of NH 3 in air, measured at various sites over different years: NH4 + rainwater concentrations measured at Vredepeel, De Bilt, Witteveen, Leiduin and Braakman; air concentration of NH 3, NH4 + aerosol and total NH x (Nil 3 + NH4 +) at Petten, Witteveen, Vredepeel and Eibergen.
1 Grant-donating bodies and subsidies (in NLG x 1000). TOTAL CONTRIBUTIONS 1992 1993 1994 total VROM 600 600 600 1800 EZ 100 100 100 300 Sep 100 100 100 300 200 300 500 201 173 555 Speuld project" 120 Detoxification project s V&W LNV 181 120 ,, Total 1101 1273 1201 3575 601 Remainder DPPA-I and DPPA-II ,,, ' Financing direct to DLO. 2 Total budget DPPA-III (in NLG x 1000). 1 .... J. W. V. 1 Introduction The final reports of DPPA-I and DPPA-II discuss in detail the processes which play a role in the emission, transport, chemical conversion and deposition of acidifying components (Schneider and Bresser, 1988; Van Aalst and Erisman, 1991; Erisman and Heij, 1991).
88 89 90 91 92 93 94 NH4 j 39 180 160 6< "6 100 -,-. ___,/ ,--~"~, o c7 4o 20 0 78 + t ! 79 80 81 82 1 : , 83 84 85 86 , I 87 88 89 ~ ! i i 90 91 92 93 year - - m - - 98 perc. 6 AOT40 (April - September) averaged for The Netherlands between 1979 and 1994. The long-term mean critical 03 levels are expressed as a cumulative exposure above a threshold value of 40 ppb, called the AOT40 (Fuhrer and Achermann, 1994). The AOT40 is the sum of the hourly concentrations above 40 ppb. 6. 4 Depositions The "Aerosol Project" was carried out in the context of DPPA-III, with the objectives of determining 0 the contribution of acidifying aerosol to the total deposition, ii) the contribution of aerosol deposition and canopy exchange processes to the difference between atmospheric deposition and throughfall, and iiO the contribution of base cations to the nutrient cycle in nature conservation areas.
Acid Atmospheric Deposition and its Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Netherlands. The Third and Final Phase (1991-1995) by G.J. Heij,J.W. Erisman