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By Karl F. Herzfeld

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103. This maximum lies at different temperatures for different frequencies and can only be explained by the occurrence of relaxation, ωτ being unity at the maximum. In glycerine, the absorption at — 20° C and 30 Mc is less than one-seventh of the classical value, calculated from shear viscosity alone, so that even the shear process must have undergone relaxation. The dispersion has also been measured. INTRODUCTION 19 The velocity is frequency independent at low frequency. At intermediate frequencies — the range depending on temperature — it increases with frequency, again becoming independent of frequency if the latter is sufficiently high.

Increases with decreasing frequency. 5b K. F. Herzfeld and F. O. Rice, Phys. 6 Rev. 31, 691 (1928). M. Greenspan, / . A const. Soc. Am. 22, 568 (1950). 46 A. GENERAL THEORY OF RELAXATION IN FLUIDS [7] is used by aerodynamicists, but is awkward to use in physics. Instead, we define a related number here and call it the Eucken number [Eu] λΜ [Eu] = — = y [ P r ] - i . (7-20") Then + (§ - ^ ) 2 [Re] {[Re] + . · ( ! + [Eu])} = [Re]·. (7-21) Truesdell7 has discussed in detail and calculated numerically the solutions of Eq.

13, 33 (1941). (6-6) 38 A. , in the linearized equation, Eq. (6—6) can be written P'" is a scalar like the hydrostatic pressure, but differs from it insofar as the latter depends only on the momentary value of density and temperature, while the former depends on the time variation of the density. The distinction is complicated by the necessity of defining temperature in time dependent situations. Stokes5,6 had already recognized the possibility of a volume viscosity but since, as can be seen from Eq.

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Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves by Karl F. Herzfeld

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