Download PDF by Jan Bates Wheeler: A Campaign of Quiet Persuasion: How the College Board
By Jan Bates Wheeler
In 1960, the school front exam Board grew to become an unforeseen player within the flow to desegregate schooling within the South. operating with its companion, academic checking out companies, the school Board quietly built-in its Scholastic flair try out (SAT) facilities in the course of the Deep South. touring from nation to kingdom, taking one tuition district or even one university at a time, university Board employees contributors, either local southerners, waged a crusade of quiet persuasion and succeeded, developing a roster of desegregated attempt facilities inside of segregated institution districts whereas the historical conflict for civil rights raged round them. within the context of the bigger fight for equivalent possibilities for southern black scholars, their paintings addressed a small yet serious barrier to raised education.
Shedding gentle in this striking tale for the 1st time, Jan Bates Wheeler tells how the varsity Board employees individuals Ben Cameron and Ben Gibson succeeded. Their candid and thoughtfully written files of conversations and confrontations, untouched for almost fifty years, display the patience required to arrive a objective many notion unachievable or even foolhardy. certainly, their job put them within the strange place of advocating for faculty desegregation on a daily foundation as a part of their jobs. This located Cameron and Gibson squarely towards winning legislation, customs, and attitudes an ill-advised stance for any nascent enterprise enterprise, relatively one experiencing pageant from a brand new, rival checking out association speculated to accommodate brazenly those self same legislation, customs, and attitudes.
Cameron and Gibson additionally authorised the private risk interested by confrontations with racist institution officers. The officers who cooperated with the pair assumed even better threat, and so one can reduce that risk, Cameron and Gibson pledged to not publicize their efforts. Even years after their paintings had ended, the 2 males refused to write down approximately their crusade for worry of compromising the folk who had helped them. Their issues, in line with Wheeler, saved this striking tale principally untold in the past.
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Additional info for A Campaign of Quiet Persuasion: How the College Board Desegregated SAT Test Centers in the Deep South, 1960-1965
41 In 1960 Roy Wilkins was fully engaged in his work. Energized and encouraged about the momentum that student sit-ins were generating in the civil rights movement, he nevertheless was concerned about how to keep that momentum going over the long term. He was keenly interested in the upcoming presidential election between John Kennedy and Richard Nixon and how its outcome would a≠ect the movement. He was very much aware that the NAACP was not the only group vying for the loyalty of black citizens—the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Urban League (NUL) were all seeking followers and financial support.
Benson was also concerned about the validity of Ferguson’s assumption that court decisions that applied to public institutions would apply to all ETS test centers, some of which were located at private institutions. Furthermore, because Ferguson was black, Benson questioned his impartiality 28 a campaign of quiet persuasion in the matter. ” There is no evidence that Winterbottom and Talbott considered taking Benson’s advice. 50 Meanwhile, a plan was under way at LSU to move the test center to the law school facilities.
In what might seem an unusual action, the trustees also decided that ETS o∞cers should accommodate any black candidates requesting permission to be examined separately from whites. The committee wished to minimize any embarrassment on the part of black candidates who might be placed in an uncomfortable, desegregated environment for testing. In addition, ETS o∞cials were to question their other clients about test conditions in order to avoid similar problems at those centers. 61 On December 2, Winterbottom dictated a memo to Talbott summarizing all reports from observers at the November 12 test administration.
A Campaign of Quiet Persuasion: How the College Board Desegregated SAT Test Centers in the Deep South, 1960-1965 by Jan Bates Wheeler